Light can be defined as electromagnetic radiation which has different frequencies and wavelength. The spectrum that can be picked up by the retina of a human eye is called visible light . Materials through which light can refracted, reflected, transmitted, dispersed, polarized, detected and transformed are called optical materials .
The rise of the medical and pharmaceutical industries, has led to the development of products designed to reduce human suffering and prolong life. Over several decades, materials such as metals, ceramics and polymers have been used to produce devices created to improve the health and quality of life. The biomaterials used are typically polymers, natural rubbers, polyurethanes, and silicone rubbers. Although the use of natural rubber can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, in general polymers can be “designed” according to the specific biomedical application and with special characteristics .